Unifying scrambling, thermalization and entanglement through measurement of fidelity out-of-time-order correlators in the Dicke model
Scrambling is the process by which information stored in local degrees of freedom spreads over the many-body degrees of freedom of a quantum system, becoming inaccessible to local probes and apparently lost. Scrambling and entanglement can reconcile seemingly unrelated behaviors including thermalization of isolated quantum systems and information loss in black holes. Here, we demonstrate that fidelity out-of-time-order correlators (FOTOCs) can elucidate connections between scrambling, entanglement, ergodicity and quantum chaos (butterfly effect). We compute FOTOCs for the paradigmatic Dicke model, and show they can measure subsystem R\ enyi entropies and inform about quantum thermalization. Moreover, we illustrate why FOTOCs give access to a simple relation between quantum and classical Lyapunov exponents in a chaotic system without finite-size effects. Our results open a path to experimental use FOTOCs to explore scrambling, bounds on quantum information processing and investigation of black hole analogs in controllable quantum systems.
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