About the Levine Group

Developing statistical methods for estimating the performance of frequency standards and for distributing time and frequency information.

My research work has two aspects: (1) Designing and implementing the statistical process that defines the reference for civilian US time, which is called UTC(NIST). This work includes developing measurement hardware for calibrating and characterizing frequency standards and algorithms for combining the data from multiple standards into a robust and statistically optimum average. In addition, the time and frequency data are exchanged with other national laboratories and with the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). This exchange realizes the international definitions of time and frequency and ensures that the national time scales are unified into a coherent ensemble. (2) Implementing methods for distributing time and frequency information to users. I have developed a number of different methods, which are designed specifically for commercial and financial users, high-end laboratories and the general public. My recent work includes developing Internet-based digital time services, which receive approximately 40,000 requests per second for time information (about 3.5e+9 requests per day), an authenticated service intended for commercial and financial applications, and a high-end method that is used for the JPL/NASA deep-space network, for timing pulsars at radio observatories, and for similar applications.

In the Spotlight

JILA and NIST Fellows Jun Ye and Judah Levine have been awarded Gold and Silver Medals
March 21, 2023: NIST and the Department of Commerce Awards JILA and NIST Fellows Jun Ye and Judah Levine with Gold and Silver Medals

Every year the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Department of Commerce (DOC) grant honor awards in the form of Gold, Silver, and Bronze Medals. According to the DOC website: “the Gold and Silver Medals are the highest and second highest honor granted by the Secretary for distinguished and exceptional performance.” Two of JILA’s Fellows, Jun Ye, and Judah Levine, have been awarded these medals.

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Photo of JILA Fellow Judah Levine
October 06, 2022: JILA Fellow and NIST Physicist Judah Levine is Quoted in the "New Yorker"

In a recent New Yorker article titled "The Thorny Problem of Keeping the Internet’s Time," Judah Levine gives insight into his own work about time keeping at NIST. 

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JILA's custom logo commemorating its 60th anniversary
July 12, 2022: Celebrating 60 Years of JILA

This year, JILA celebrates its 60th anniversary. Officially established on April 13, 1962, as a joint institution between the University of Colorado Boulder and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), JILA has become a world leader in physics research. Its rich history includes three Nobel laureates, groundbreaking work in laser development, atomic clocks, underlying dedication to precision measurement, and even competitive sports leagues. The process of creating this science goliath was not always straightforward and took the dedication and hard work of many individuals.

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Photo of JILA Fellow Judah Levine
December 13, 2021: JILA Fellow Judah Levine Revisits His Work

On December 8th, JILA and NIST Fellow Dr. Judah Levine spoke on his research into internet time service. Internet time service is based on atomic clock technology and is used to help set computer clocks and other devices. The virtual event was hosted by Executive Director Dan Powers of CO-Labs, a coalition of 30+ federally funded Colorado research labs, including JILA. Levine's talk was one in a series discussing the ROI of scientific research.

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JILA Address

We are located at JILA: A joint institute of NIST and the University of Colorado Boulder.

Map | JILA Phone: 303-492-7789 | Address: 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309