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Cascaded decay, superradiance and protected state enhanced quantum metrology

Event Details

Event Dates: 

Wednesday, August 21, 2013 - 1:30pm

Seminar Location: 

  • JILA X317

Speaker Name(s): 

Laurin Ostermann

Speaker Affiliation(s): 

University of Innsbruck
Seminar Type/Subject

Scientific Seminar Type: 

  • AMO Seminar

Event Details & Abstract: 

Energy and lifetime of collective optical excitations in regular arrays of atoms and molecules are significantly influenced by dipole-dipole interaction. While the dynamics of closely positioned atoms can be approximated well by the Dicke superradiance model, the situation of finite regular configurations is hard to access analytically. Most treatments use an exciton based description limited to the lowest excitation manifold. We present a general approach studying the complete decay cascade of a finite regular array of atoms from the fully inverted to the ground state. We explicitly calculate all energy shifts and decay rates for two generic cases of a three-atom linear chain and an equilateral triangle. In numerical calculations we show that despite fairly weak dipole-dipole interactions, collective vacuum coupling allows for superradiant emission as well as subradiant states in larger arrays through multi-particle interference. This induces extra dephasing and modified decay as important limitations for Ramsey experiments in lattice atomic clock setups as well as for the gain and frequency stability of superradiant lasers. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-28-29634Ramsey interferometry is routinely used in quantum metrology for the most sensitive measurements of optical clock frequencies. Spontaneous decay to the electromagnetic vacuum ultimately limits the interrogation time and thus sets a lower bound to the optimal frequency sensitivity. In dense ensembles of two-level systems the presence of collective effects such as superradiance and dipole-dipole interaction tends to decrease the sensitivity even further. We show that by a redesign of the Ramsey-pulse sequence that includes different rotations of individual spins,that effectively fold the collective state onto a state close to the center of the Bloch sphere,, partial protection from collective decoherence is possible. This allows a significant improvement in the sensitivity limit of a clock transition detection scheme over the conventional Ramsey method for interacting systems and even for non-interacting decaying atoms. http://arxiv.org/abs/1307.2558