One of the most important states of matter we see around us is the Landau-Fermi liquid. In fact, this is the state of matter electrons have in metals and semiconductors which we rely on so much in our technology. Over the last several decades we have seen that introducing strong correlations and destroying this traditional conducting state leads to new and dramatic macroscopic states of matter. One playground for these new behaviors is doped Mott insulators, where Coulomb repulsion localizes electrons and competes with the itinerancy of introduced carriers. Such competition leads to strong atomic scale variation in the electronic properties which are a key component in understanding the resulting macroscopic phenomena.We have developed microscopic techniques for measuring the electronic structure on the atomic scale. With these probes we have investigated several materials in which atomic scale disorder plays a huge role in the electronic structure. I will discuss several examples where these probes have let us uncover the true microscopic nature of these macroscopic phases that are hidden on the bulk scale.